• BenzaldehydeBenzaldehyde


Benzaldehyde 's cas code is 100-52-7

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Product Description

Benzaldehyde Basic information

description Uses Production reactions

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Benzaldehyde Chemical Properties

Melting point 

-26 °C

Boiling point 

179 °C


1.044 g/cm 3 at 20 °C(lit.)

vapor density 

3.7 (vs air)

vapor pressure 

4 mm Hg ( 45 °C)



refractive index 

n20/D 1.545(lit.)


145 °F

storage temp. 

room temp


H2O: soluble100mg/mL


14.90(at 25℃)




Like almonds.


5.9 (1g/l, H2O)

explosive limit


Water Solubility 

<0.01 g/100 mL at 19.5 ºC




Air Sensitive

JECFA Number







Stable. Combustible. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, strong acids, reducing agents, steam. Air, light and moisture-sensitive.



CAS DataBase Reference

100-52-7(CAS DataBase Reference)

NIST Chemistry Reference


EPA Substance Registry System

Benzaldehyde (100-52-7)

Benzaldehyde Safety Information

Hazard Codes 


Risk Statements 


Safety Statements 



UN 1990 9/PG 3

WGK Germany 





Autoignition Temperature

374 °F



HS Code 

2912 21 00





Hazardous Substances Data

100-52-7(Hazardous Substances Data)


LD50 in rats, guinea pigs (mg/kg): 1300, 1000 orally (Jenner)

Benzaldehyde Usage And Synthesis


Benzaldehyde is used as an intermediatein the production of flavoring chemicals,such as cinnamaldehyde, cinnamalalcohol,and amyl- and hexylcinnamaldehyde for perfume,soap, and food flavor; synthetic penicillin,ampicillin, and ephedrine; and as araw material for the herbicide Avenge. Itoccurs in nature in the seeds of almonds,apricots, cherries, and peaches. It occurs intrace amounts in corn oil.


Manufacture of dyes, perfumery, cinnamic and mandelic acids, as solvent; in flavors.


Benzaldehyde is a flavoring agent which is liquid and colorless, and has an almond-like odor. it has a hot (burning) taste. it is oxidized to benzoic acid when exposed to air and deteriorates under light. it is miscible in volatile oils, fixed oils, ether, and alcohol; it is spar- ingly soluble in water. it is obtained by chemical synthesis and by natural occurrence in oils of bitter almond, peach, and apricot kernel. it is also termed benzoic aldehyde.


A yellow organic oil with a distinct almondlike odor. Benzenecarbaldehyde undergoes the reactions characteristic of aldehydes and may be synthesized in the laboratory by the usual methods of aldehyde synthesis. It is used as a food flavoring and in the manufacture of dyes and antibiotics, and can be readily manufactured by the chlorination of methylbenzene and the subsequent hydrolysis of (dichloromethyl) benzene: C6H5CH3 + Cl2→C6H5CHCl2 C6H5CHCl2 + 2H2O →C6H5CH(OH)2+ 2HCl C6H5CH(OH)2 →C6H5CHO + H2O.

Aroma threshold values

Detection: 100 ppb to 4.6 ppm; Recognition: 330 ppb to 4.1 ppm.

Taste threshold values

Taste characteristics at 50 ppm: sweet, oily, almond, cherry, nutty and woody

General Description

A clear colorless to yellow liquid with a bitter almond odor. Flash point near 145°F. More denser than water and insoluble in water. Hence sinks in water. Vapors are heavier than air. The primary hazard is to the environment. Immediate steps should be taken to limit spread to the environment. Easily penetrates the soil to contaminate groundwater and nearby waterways. Used in flavoring and perfume making.

Air & Water Reactions

Oxidizes in air to form benzoic acid, which is moderately toxic by ingestion. Insoluble in water.

Reactivity Profile

A nontoxic, combustible liquid, reacts with oxidizing reagents. Benzaldehyde must be blanketed with an inert gas at all times since Benzaldehyde is oxidized readily by air to benzoic acid [Kirk-Othmer, 3rd ed., Vol. 3, 1978, p. 736]. In contact with strong acids or bases Benzaldehyde will undergo an exothermic condensation reaction [Sax, 9th ed., 1996, p. 327]. A violent reaction was observed on contact with peroxyacids (peroxyformic acid) [DiAns, J. et al., Ber., 1915, 48, p. 1136]. An explosion occurred when pyrrolidine, Benzaldehyde, and propionic acid were heated to form porphyrins.


Highly toxic.

Health Hazard

Benzaldehyde exhibited low to moderate toxicityin test animals, the poisoning effectdepending on dosage. Ingestion of 50–60 mLmay be fatal to humans. Oral intake of a largedose can cause tremor, gastrointestinal pain,and kidney damage. Animal experimentsindicated that ingestion of this compoundby guinea pigs caused tremor, bleeding fromsmall intestine, and an increase in urine volume;in rats, ingestion resulted in somnolenceand coma.
LD50 value, oral (guinea pigs): 1000 mg/kg
LD50 value, oral (rats): 1300 mg/kg
A 500-mg amount for a 24-hour periodresulted in moderate skin irritation in rabbits.Because of its low toxicity, high boilingpoint, and low vapor pressure, the healthhazard to humans from exposure to benzaldehydeis very low.

Fire Hazard

HIGHLY FLAMMABLE: Will be easily ignited by heat, sparks or flames. Vapors may form explosive mixtures with air. Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Most vapors are heavier than air. They will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Vapor explosion hazard indoors, outdoors or in sewers. Runoff to sewer may create fire or explosion hazard. Containers may explode when heated. Many liquids are lighter than water.

Chemical Reactivity

Reactivity with Water: No reaction; Reactivity with Common Materials: No reactions; Stability During Transport: Stable; Neutralizing Agents for Acids and Caustics: Not pertinent; Polymerization: Not pertinent; Inhibitor of Polymerization: Not pertinent.

Safety Profile

Poison by ingestion and intraperitoneal routes. Moderately toxic by subcutaneous route. An allergen. Acts as a feeble local anesthetic. Local contact may cause contact dermatitis. Causes central nervous system depression in small doses and convulsions in larger doses. A skin irritant. Questionable carcinogen with experimental tumorigenic data. Mutation data reported. Combustible liquid. To fight fire, use water (may be used as a blanket), alcohol, foam, dry chemical. A strong reducing agent. Reacts violently with peroxyformic acid and other oxidizers. See also ALDEHYDES.

Chemical Synthesis

Natural benzaldehyde is obtained by extraction and subsequent fractional distillation from botanical sources; synthetically, from benzyl chloride and lime or by oxidation of toluene

Potential Exposure

In manufacture of perfumes, dyes, and cinnamic acid; as solvent; in flavors.


Benzaldehyde should be kept stored in a tightly closed container and protected against physical damage. Storage of the chemical substance outside or in a detached area is preferred, whereas inside storage should be in a standard flammable liquids storage room or cabinet. Benzaldehyde should be kept separated from oxidizing materials. Also, storage and use areas should be no smoking areas. Containers of this material may be hazardous when empty since they retain product residues (vapors, liquid); observe all warnings and precautions listed for the product


UN1990 Benzaldehyde, Hazard class: 9; Labels: 9—Miscellaneous hazardous material.

Purification Methods

To diminish its rate of oxidation, benzaldehyde usually contains additives such as hydroquinone or catechol. It can be purified via its bisulfite addition compound but usually distillation (under nitrogen at reduced pressure) is sufficient. Prior to distillation it is washed with NaOH or 10% Na2CO3 (until no more CO2 is evolved), then with saturated Na2SO3 and H2O, followed by drying with CaSO4, MgSO4 or CaCl2. [Beilstein 7 IV 505.]


The substance reacts with air, forming explosive peroxides. Reacts violently with performic acid, oxidants, aluminum, iron, bases, and phenol, causing fire and explosion hazard. May self-ignite if absorbed in combustible material with large surface area, or otherwise dispersed over large areas. Reacts with rust, amines, alkalies, strong bases, reducing agents such as hydrideds and active metals.

Waste Disposal

Incineration; add combustible solvent and spray into incinerator with afterburner.


Workers should be careful when using benzaldehyde because there is a risk of spontaneous combustion. It may ignite spontaneously if it is absorbed onto rags, cleaning cloths, clothing, sawdust, diatomaceous earth (kieselguhr), activated charcoal, or other materials with large surface areas in workplaces. Workers should avoid handling the chemical substance and should not cut, puncture, or weld on or near the container. Exposure of benzaldehyde to air, light, heat, hot surfaces such as hot pipes, sparks, open flames, and other ignition sources should be avoided. Workers should wear proper personal protective clothing and equipment

Benzaldehyde Preparation Products And Raw materials

Preparation Products

2,3,5-Triphenyltetrazolium chloride-->whitener WG for wool-->Benzalacetone-->3,5-DIPHENYLPYRAZOLE-->Epalrestat-->Bis(dibenzylideneacetone)palladium-->2-[2-(4-Fluorophenyl)-2-oxo-1-phenylethyl]-4-methyl-3-oxo-N-phenylpentanamide-->L-Arginine hydrochloride-->2-(Acetylamino)-3-phenyl-2-propenoic acid-->Methyl 1H-indole-2-carboxylate-->TRANS-2-PHENYL-1-CYCLOPROPANECARBOXYLIC ACID-->1-AMINO-4-METHYLPIPERAZINE DIHYDROCHLORIDE MONOHYDRATE-->Acid Blue 90-->Diaveridine-->Nifedipine-->Reactive Blue 104-->3,4-Dichlorobenzylamine-->Tris(dibenzylideneacetone)dipalladium-->Nitrotetrazolium blue chloride-->BENZYLHYDRAZINE DIHYDROCHLORIDE-->(R)-(+)-N-Benzyl-1-phenylethylamine-->2-((E)-2-Hydroxy-3-phenylacryloyl)benzoic acid ,97%-->(E)-3-Benzylidene-3H-isochromene-1,4-dione ,97%-->Reactive Blue BRF-->FLAVANONE-->L-Phenylglycine-->Benzenemethanol, ar-methyl-, acetate-->ASTRAZON BRILLIANT RED 4G-->2-amino-5-chloro-diphenyl methanol-->Magentagreencrystals-->Acid Blue 9-->alpha-Hexylcinnamaldehyde-->DL-Mandelic acid-->N,N'-BISBENZYLIDENEBENZIDINE-->2,4,5-TRIPHENYLIMIDAZOLE-->4-Hydroxybenzylideneacetone-->5,5-Diphenylhydantoin-->1-[2-[2-hydroxy-3-(propylamino)propoxy]phenyl]-3-phenylpropan-1-one hydrochloride-->N,N'-Dibenzyl ethylenediamine diacetate-->2-PHENYL-1.3-DIOXOLANE-4-METHANOL

Raw materials

Toluene-->Sodium carbonate-->Palladium-->Chlorine-->Benzyl chloride-->Zinc oxide-->CARBON MONOXIDE-->Aluminium chloride hexahydrate-->Benzyl alcohol-->Molybdenum trioxide-->Ozone-->trans-Cinnamaldehyde-->Zinc phosphate-->Cinnamon oil-->Amygdalin

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