Isoamyl Acetate
  • Isoamyl AcetateIsoamyl Acetate

Isoamyl Acetate

Isoamyl acetate's cas code is 123-92-2

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Product Description

Isoamyl acetate Basic information

Chemical properties Uses Production method Content analysis Toxicity Usage limit Hazards & Safety Information

Product Name:

Isoamyl acetate


Iso-aMyl acetate Iso >= 99.0%, natural;IsoaMyl acetate, SuperDry, J&KSeal;IsoaMyl acetate, 99%, SpcDry, Water≤50 ppM (by K.F.), SpcSeal;Acetic acid-3-;Isopentyl acetate reagent grade, 98%;3-Methylbutyl Acetate〔Isopentyl Acetate〕;Isoamyl acetate EMPLURA.;1-Butanol,3-methyl-,acetate









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Pyridines;Anhydrous Solvents;Solvent Bottles;Solvent by Application;Solvent Packaging Options;Solvents;Sure/Seal Bottles;Analytical Chemistry;Solvents for HPLC & Spectrophotometry;Solvents for Spectrophotometry

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Isoamyl acetate Chemical Properties

Melting point 

-78 °C

Boiling point 

142 °C756 mm Hg(lit.)


0.876 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)

vapor density 

4.5 (vs air)

vapor pressure 

5 mm Hg ( 25 °C)



refractive index 

n20/D 1.4(lit.)


77 °F

storage temp. 

Flammables area


ethanol: soluble1ml/3ml, clear, colorless (60%ethanol)



explosive limit


Water Solubility 

0.20 g/100 mL. Slightly soluble

JECFA Number






Henry's Law Constant

10.25 at 37 °C (static headspace-GC, Bylaite et al., 2004)

Exposure limits

TLV-TWA 100 ppm (~530 mg/m3) (ACGIH, MSHA, and OSHA); TLV-STEL 125 ppm (~655 mg/m3); IDLH 3000 ppm (NIOSH).

CAS DataBase Reference

123-92-2(CAS DataBase Reference)

NIST Chemistry Reference

1-Butanol, 3-methyl-, acetate(123-92-2)

EPA Substance Registry System

Isoamyl acetate (123-92-2)

Isoamyl acetate Safety Information

Hazard Codes 


Risk Statements 


Safety Statements 



UN 1104 3/PG 3

WGK Germany 




Autoignition Temperature

680 °F







HS Code 


Hazardous Substances Data

123-92-2(Hazardous Substances Data)


LD50 orally in Rabbit: > 5000 mg/kg LD50 dermal Rat > 5000 mg/kg

Isoamyl acetate Usage And Synthesis

Chemical properties

Isoamyl acetate appears as colorless transparent liquid with pleasant banana aroma, being volatile. It is miscible with ethanol, ethyl ether, benzene, carbon disulfide and other organic solvents, being almost insoluble in water.

Production method

Isoamyl acetate is obtained through the esterification between the acetate with the isoamyl alcohol separated from the fusel oil under the catalysis of sulfuric acid.
It is derived from the esterification between acetic acid and isoamyl alcohol. In the mixture of acetic acid and amyl alcohol, add sulfuric acid for esterification reaction, followed by neutralization with sodium carbonate (or caustic soda) with further calcium chloride dehydration to obtain the crude ester, and then refined by distillation to derive the finished products.
Isoamyl acetate is presented in bananas and cocoa beans and is commercially manufactured using pentanol separated from fusel oil as raw materials. Isoamyl alcohol and sulfuric acid have been added to glacial acetic acid for heating reflux reaction. When the temperature of the top of the column reached 132 °C, the esterification was complete. After cooling, wash with water, and neutralize with 10% NaOH solution and then washed with water to neutral, and finally dried with anhydrous calcium chloride after distillation, collecting 138~143 ° C fractions, being the product.

Content analysis

This was determined by the method I in the ester assay (OT-18). The amount of sample taken was 800 mg. The equivalent factor (e) in the calculation is 65.10.
Alternatively, apply the non-polar column in the gas chromatography (GT-10-4) for measurement;


ADI 0 to 3.7 (FAO/WHO, 1994);
LD5016.6 g/kg (rat, oral);

Usage limit

FEMA (mg/kg): soft drinks 28; cold drinks 56; candy 190; baked goods 120; pudding 100; take appropriate amount as limit (FDA § 172.515, 2000);

Hazards & Safety Information

Category: Flammable liquids
Toxicity classification: Low toxicity
Acute Toxicity:  Oral-Rat LD50: 16600 mg/kg
EXPLOSIVES HAZARDOUS CHARACTERISTICS:  it is explosive if its vapors are blended with air 
Flammability and Hazardous characteristics:  it is easily flammable with burning releasing irritant smoke
Storage and transportation characteristics:  Treasury: ventilated, low temperature and dry; store and transport it separately from oxidant.
Extinguishing agent:  dry powder, carbon dioxide, foam, mist water
Occupational Standard:  TWA 525 mg/m3; STEL 650 mg/m3


In commercial practice amyl invariably means isoamyl, unless it is prefaced by the n- for normal. Isoamyl acetate has a powerful, fruity odor with a bittersweet taste reminiscent of pear. If impure, the odor is strong, penetrating, and almost shocking. Usually prepared by esterification of commercial isoamyl alcohol with acetic acid.

Chemical Properties

Isoamyl Acetate is a strongly fruity-smelling liquid and has been identified in many fruit aromas. It is the main component of banana aroma and is, therefore, also used in banana flavors.
All isomers of amyl acetate are highly flammable, colorless to yellow, watery liquids.
Isoamyl acetate has a fruity, banana, sweet, fragrant, powerful odor with a bittersweet taste reminiscent of pear. If impure, the odor is strong, penetrating and almost shocking. In commercial practice, amyl invariably means isoamyl.

Physical properties

Clear, colorless liquid with a banana or pear-like odor. Odor threshold concentration is 7 ppm (quoted, Keith and Walters, 1992). A detection odor threshold concentration of 18 μg/m3 (3.4 ppbv) was determined by Katz and Talbert (1930).


Isoamyl acetate is used to impart pear flavorto mineral waters and syrups, in perfumes, inthe manufacture of artificial silk or leather, inphotographic films, in dyeing textiles, and asa solvent.


banana oil is a carrier oil. The banana family is of more interest for its nutritional value rather than for its botanical properties. The use of plantain juice as an antidote for snake bites has been reported in parts of Southeast Asia since 1916.


Sting pheromone of the honeybee.1


In alcohol solution as a pear flavor in mineral waters and syrups; as solvent for old oil colors, for tannins, nitrocellulose, lacquers, celluloid, and camphor; swelling bath sponges; covering unpleasant odors, perfuming shoe polish; manufacture of artificial silk, leather or pearls, photographic films, celluloid cements, waterproof varnishes, bronzing liquids, and metallic paints; dyeing and finishing textiles. A special grade of the amyl acetate has been used for burning in the Hefner lamp serving as a photometric standard.


ChEBI: The acetate ester of isoamylol.

Production Methods

The commerical-grade isoamyl acetate is prepared by the esterification of amyl alcohol (often fusel oil) with acetic acid and a small amount of sulfuric acid as the catalyst .

Production Methods

The commerical-grade isoamyl acetate is prepared by the esterification of amyl alcohol (often fusel oil) with acetic acid and a small amount of sulfuric acid as the catalyst.

Taste threshold values

FEMA PADI: 24.491 mg

General Description

Oily liquid; colorless; banana odor. Floats and mixes with water. Flammable, irritating vapor is produced .

Air & Water Reactions

Highly flammable. Insoluble in water.

Reactivity Profile

Isoamyl acetate is an ester. Esters react with acids to liberate heat along with alcohols and acids. Strong oxidizing acids may cause a vigorous reaction that is sufficiently exothermic to ignite the reaction products. Heat is also generated by the interaction of esters with caustic solutions. Flammable hydrogen is generated by mixing esters with alkali metals and hydrides. Isoamyl acetate can react violently with oxidizing materials, nitrates, strong alkalis and strong acids.


Flammable, moderate fire risk. Irritant. Explosive limits in air 1–7.5%.

Health Hazard

Isoamyl acetate exhibits low toxicity; thetoxic effects are comparable to those of n amyl acetate. The toxic symptoms includeirritation of the eyes, nose, and throat;fatigue; increased pulse rate; and narcosis.Inhalation of its vapors at 1000 ppm for30 minutes may cause irritation, fatigue, andrespiratory distress in humans. It is more narcotic than are the lower acetic esters. TheLD50 value in rabbits is on the order of7000 mg/kg.

Fire Hazard

FLAMMABLE. Flashback along vapor trail may occur. Vapor may explode if ignited in an enclosed area. When heated emits acrid fumes. When exposed to flames can react vigorously with reducing materials.

Potential Exposure

(n-isomer): Primary irritant (w/o allergic reaction), (sec-isomer) Human Data. Amyl acetates are used as industrial solvents and in the manufacturing and dry-cleaning industry; making artificial fruit-flavoring agents; cements, coated papers, lacquers; in medications as an inflammatory agent; pet repellents, insecticides and miticide. Many other uses.


Not listed by ACGIH, California Proposition 65, IARC, NTP, or OSHA.


Identified among 139 volatile compounds identified in cantaloupe (Cucumis melo var. reticulates cv. Sol Real) using an automated rapid headspace solid phase microextraction method (Beaulieu and Grimm, 2001).

Environmental fate

Chemical/Physical. Slowly hydrolyzes in water forming 3-methyl-1-butanol and acetic acid.


UN1993 Flammable liquids, n.o.s., Hazard Class: 3; Labels: 3-Flammable liquid, Technical Name Required.

Purification Methods

Dry the acetate with finely divided K2CO3 and fractionally distil it. [Beilstein 2 IV 157.]


Vapors may form explosive mixture with air. Incompatible with oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explosions. Keep away from alkaline materials, strong bases, strong acids, oxoacids, epoxides, nitrates. May soften certain plastics.

Waste Disposal

Dissolve or mix the material with a combustible solvent and burn in a chemical incinerator equipped with an afterburner and scrubber. All federal, state, and local environmental regulations must be observed. In accordance with 40CFR165, follow recommendations for the disposal of pesticides and pesticide containers. Must be disposed properly by following package label directions or by contacting your local or federal environmental control agency, or by contacting your regional EPA office.

Isoamyl acetate Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials

Sodium hydroxide-->Acetic acid glacial-->Calcium chloride-->3-Methyl-1-butanol-->FUSEL OIL-->ISOAMYL ALCOHOL

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