Isoamyl Alcohol
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Isoamyl Alcohol

Isoamyl Alcohol's cas code is 123-51-3.

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Product Description

Isoamyl Alcohol Basic information


Chemical properties content analysis Uses Production methods Hazards & Safety Information


Product Name:

Isoamyl Alcohol

Synonyms:

3-methyl-1-butano;3-methylbutan-;3-methylbutanoI;3-Metil-butanolo;Alcool amilico;Alcool isoamylique;alcoolamilico;alcoolisoamylique

CAS:

123-51-3

MF:

C5H12O

MW:

88.15

EINECS:

204-633-5

Mol File:

123-51-3.mol



Isoamyl Alcohol Chemical Properties


Melting point 

-117 °C

Boiling point 

131-132 °C

density 

0.809 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)

vapor density 

3 (vs air)

vapor pressure 

2 mm Hg ( 20 °C)

refractive index 

n20/D 1.407

FEMA 

2057 | ISOAMYL ALCOHOL

Fp 

109.4 °F

storage temp. 

Flammables area

solubility 

25g/l

pka

>14 (Schwarzenbach et al., 1993)

form 

Liquid

color 

<20(APHA)

Specific Gravity

0.813 (15/4℃)

PH

7 (25g/l, H2O, 20℃)

Odor

Mild odor; alcoholic, non-residual.

Odor Threshold

0.0017ppm

explosive limit

1.2-9%, 100°F

Water Solubility 

25 g/L (20 ºC)

λmax

λ: 260 nm Amax: 0.06
λ: 280 nm Amax: 0.06

Merck 

14,5195

JECFA Number

52

BRN 

1718835

Henry's Law Constant

33.1 at 37 °C (Bylaite et al., 2004)

Exposure limits

NIOSH REL: TWA 100 ppm (360 mg/m3), IDLH 500 ppm; OSHA PEL: TWA 100 ppm; ACGIH TLV: TWA 100 ppm, STEL 125 ppm (adopted).

Stability:

Stable. Flammable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, strong acids, acid chlorides, acid anhydrides.

CAS DataBase Reference

123-51-3(CAS DataBase Reference)

NIST Chemistry Reference

1-Butanol, 3-methyl-(123-51-3)

EPA Substance Registry System

3-Methyl-1-butanol (123-51-3)


Isoamyl Alcohol Safety Information


Hazard Codes 

Xn

Risk Statements 

10-20-37-66-20/22-R20/22-R10

Safety Statements 

46-16-S16

RIDADR 

UN 1105 3/PG 3

WGK Germany 

1

RTECS 

EL5425000

Autoignition Temperature

644 °F

TSCA 

Yes

HazardClass 

3

PackingGroup 

II

HS Code 

29335995

Hazardous Substances Data

123-51-3(Hazardous Substances Data)

Toxicity

LD50 orally in rats: 7.07 ml/kg (Smyth)


Isoamyl Alcohol Usage And Synthesis


Chemical properties

Colorless to pale yellow clear oily liquid. Apple brandy aroma and spicy flavor. Melting point:-117.2 °C. Boiling point: 130 °C. Relative density (d2525): 0.813. Refractive index (nD20): 1.4075. Vapors are toxic. Miscible in ethanol and ether. Slightly soluble in water.
Natural products present in the form of esters in strawberries, peppermint, lemongrass, eucalyptus oil and rum and so on.

Description

Isoamyl alcohol has a characteristic pungent odor and repulsive taste. Industrially prepared by rectification of fusel oil.

Chemical Properties

Isoamyl alcohol has a fusel oil, whiskey-characteristic, pungent odor and repulsive taste.

Chemical Properties

Amyl alcohols (pentanols) have eight isomers. All are flammable, colorless liquids, except the isomer 2,2- dimethyl-1-propanol, which is a crystalline solid.

Chemical Properties

colourless liquid

Chemical Properties

The air odor threshold for 3-methyl-1-butanol was reported as 0.042 ppm , which provides some acute warning for exposure to this chemical.

Physical properties

Clear, colorless liquid with a pungent odor. An odor threshold concentration of 1.7 ppbv was reported by Nagata and Takeuchi (1990).

Uses

3-Methyl-1-butanol and 2-methyl-1-butanol are normally used as apple or banana flavoring agents for wine. They can also be used as chemical intermediates and solvents in pharmaceutical products.

Uses

Isoamylol is one of the several isomers of amyl alcohol and the main ingredient in the production of banana oil.

Uses

Solvent for fats, resins, alkaloids, etc.; manufacture of isoamyl (amyl) Compounds, isovaleric acid, mercury fulminate, pyroxylin, artificial silk, lacquers, smokeless powders; in microscopy; for dehydrating celloidin solutions; for determining fat in milk.

Definition

ChEBI: An alkyl alcohol that is butan-1-ol substituted by a methyl group at position 3.

Production Methods

3-Methyl-1-butanol is used as solvents for oils, fats, resins, and waxes; in the plastics industry in spinning polyacrylonitrile; and in manufacturing lacquers, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals. It is also used as flavoring agents and in fragrances. Industrial exposure is principally by the dermal contact and inhalation.

Preparation

Industrially prepared by rectification of fusel oil.

Preparation

3-Methyl-1-butanol and 2-methyl-1-butanol were first isolated from fusel oils, by-products of ethanol fermentation by yeast. These compounds can also be derived from the chlorination of pentane followed by hydrolysis. Another alternative process is the oxo process, a general strategy for the manufacture of C4 and higher alcohols. Both the chlorination process and the oxo process are current commercial processes for the production of 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-methyl-1-butanol, but the oxo process via the hydroformylation reaction is the more popular. Two main technologies are used for the process. The first was brought on stream by Ruhrchemie in Germany and Exxon in USA in the 1940s and is generally referred to as "high-pressure cobalt catalyst technology." The active catalyst species is cobalt hydrocarbonyl, and a pressure of 200–300 atm is required to maintain the stability of the catalyst. In the early 1960s, Shell commercialized a modern version of the cobalt catalyst process. This technology uses organophosphine ligands, which allows a lower operating pressure of 30–100 atm but at the expense of the catalyst activity. The Shell technology is employed primarily in the production of linear primary alcohols, whereas the high-pressure cobalt technology is frequently used in the production of branched alcohols.

Aroma threshold values

Detection: 250 ppb to 4.1 ppm

Taste threshold values

Taste characteristics at 50 ppm: fusel, fermented, fruity, banana, ethereal and cognac

General Description

Colorless liquid with a mild, choking alcohol odor. Less dense than water, soluble in water. Hence floats on water. Produces an irritating vapor.

Air & Water Reactions

Highly flammable. Water soluble.

Reactivity Profile

3-Methyl-1-butanol attacks plastics [Handling Chemicals Safely, 1980. p. 236]. Mixtures with concentrated sulfuric acid and strong hydrogen peroxide may cause explosions. Mixing with hypochlorous acid in water or water/carbon tetrachloride solution can generate isoamyl hypochlorites, which may explode, particularly on exposure to sunlight or heat. Mixing with chlorine would also yield isoamyl hypochlorites [NFPA 491 M, 1991]. Base-catalysed reactions with isocyanates can occur with explosive violence [Wischmeyer,1969].

Hazard

Moderate fire risk. Vapor is toxic and irritant. Explosive limits in air 1.2–9%.

Health Hazard

Very high vapor concentrations irritate eyes and upper respiratory tract. Continued contact with skin may cause irritation.

Chemical Reactivity

Reactivity with Water: No reaction; Reactivity with Common Materials: No reactions; Stability During Transport: Stable; Neutralizing Agents for Acids and Caustics: Not pertinent; Polymerization: Not pertinent; Inhibitor of Polymerization: Not pertinent.

Potential Exposure

(n-isomer); Suspected reprotoxic hazard, Primary irritant (w/o allergic reaction), (iso-, primary): Possible risk of forming tumors, Primary irritant (w/o allergic reaction), (sec-, active primary-, and other isomers) Primary irritant (w/o allergic reaction). Used as a solvent in organic synthesis and synthetic flavoring, pharmaceuticals, corrosion inhibitors; making plastics and other chemicals; as a flotation agent. The (n-isomer) is used in preparation of oil additives, plasticizers, synthetic lubricants, and as a solvent.




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