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The history of flavor and fragrance in China

Perfume industry (short for fragrance industry) is an industry that benefits people's life. Its main task and purpose is to make its products with fragrance and fragrance, so as to satisfy people's enjoyment of fragrance and taste and improve people's quality of life. Perfume industry is a component of fine chemical industry. It has the same and different characteristics as other chemical industries. It also contains the knowledge of botany, plant taxonomy and cultivation, zoology and other disciplines. The quality of spices, in addition to physical and chemical indicators, mainly depends on the quality of aroma, fragrance, at present aroma, fragrance sensory indicators, no instrument can be measured, so the use of smell to assess aroma and taste flavor is a necessary technology in the production of fragrance fragrance.

Essence is the final product of fragrance, it is a kind of product which is mixed by many kinds of natural fragrance and synthetic fragrance, it can be applied to all kinds of daily chemical products and food products directly. Flavor plays an important role in more than 200 varieties of 15 major categories of daily chemical products, and 60% of the food industry products have a close relationship with flavor. The amount of fragrance in daily chemical products is 0.1 % ~ 2%, the amount of perfume is larger, about 5% ~ 20%; The dosage of food is 0.05% ~ 0.3%, but it does directly affect the use value and economic benefit of the fragrance products.

China has known the use of spices since the Yin and shang dynasties, but they are all made from natural aromatic animal (plant) materials, such as musk and civets. Plants such as roses, osmanthus flowers; Fruit such as orange, lemon; Bark such as cinnamon; Plant leaves such as mint, basil, etc. The rhizome has iris, fragrant root; Seeds have fennel and so on. The spending on spices by the rulers of the Ming and qing dynasties was staggering. With the development of modern science, the essential oil can be extracted from the aromatic raw materials, and can be made into essence by the essential oil. Flavor has become the daily life of the masses of the people must, such as washing products, cosmetics, there are daily chemical flavor; There are essences for food in candies, cookies, cakes and drinks; Tobacco tobacco flavor: now there are many families in the beverage, steamed bread and other food to add incense, a number of industrial products are also added incense, it can be seen that the widely used flavor.

In 1921, jianchen fragrance foreign company and the old deji pharmacy were established in Shanghai as the earliest. Huamei pharmacy and other western pharmaceutical is only resell imported essence. In 1924, the three brothers, ye xinnong, founded a chemical factory to extract essential oil from natural aromatic plants. Founded in 1927 by Zheng Tingrong jia fu perfumery plant, also has a new branch of before and after the victory of the war, the general could say flavors is the modem germination and development of the emerging industrial Li Runtian (1894 ~ 1960) in 1932 to buy the original as a minister of foreign firm brand, specializing in flavors, so much money and hire poles that gehl, (s. Nagel found) for flavourists make jian I factory improve the quality of the "eagle" brand essence, and formulate the cosmetics use, soap, edible, cigarette flavor, breed of design and color is complete step by step.

Nagel worked for four or five years at the kanchen factory before leaving on the eve of the war of resistance against Japanese aggression. During his tenure at jianchen factory, he helped li runtian also train a lot of fragrance talents, including dai ziying, jiang qingru, wang qingyuan and others. After the victory of the war of resistance against Japanese aggression, the Shanghai fragrance industry organization established the fragrance industry trade council, and li runtian was elected chairman of the trade council. At the same time foreign goods resumed imports, which is a big threat to the emerging fragrance factories, thanks to the establishment of the trade council, advocating only import flavor and not import flavor, domestic flavor production to get a ray of life. After 1949, under the strong support of the Chinese government, food flavor was purchased and sold exclusively by the chemical industry commercial department, and the unified formula of food flavor was formulated. In 1956, the government rectified the spice industry, and took a series of measures to close, stop, merge and transfer according to the production mode and product nature of each factory in a planned and step-by-step way. At the same time, a national spice research institute was established as a research center for the spice industry. Central food industry set up the first state-owned guangzhou flower factory to guangzhou baihua perfumery plant) after (mainly produces natural jasmine extract, then with aromatic plants resources of the country's provinces in hangzhou safflower, cistus (ink), fuzhou (jasmine, michelia), chengdu (lemon, orange), zhangzhou, osmanthus tree (LAN), guilin, kunming (tree moss, geranyl), nanjing (ladanum) and other places have established a local state-run perfumery plant. At first, they mainly produced natural spices, but soon they also produced fragrances.

From 1958 to 1960, under the influence of the "great leap forward" era, the enterprises pursued the output value, ignored the demand and produced blindly, and the chemical industry commercial department blindly purchased, resulting in the backlog of nearly 2,400 tons of inferior flavor nationwide, causing adverse impact on the production of flavor. After the ministry of light industry organized a professional team to identify, will not be the reform of the fragrance all scrapped, to 1963 because of the strengthening of management, formulated in Shanghai, guangzhou, tianjin, shenyang four areas of the production and supply of fragrance management measures, to reverse the abnormal production management situation, this is a lesson of the fragrance industry. During the "cultural revolution" from 1966 to 1976, the spice industry was influenced by the ideological trend of "sealing, capital and repairing", which affected its development to some extent.

In the early 1980s, the central government put forward the policy of reform and opening up, opened the door to the world, and the spice industry was no exception. At the beginning, international spice multinational companies, such as IFF, givaudan-roure, H&R and Quest, came to China successively from 1983 to 1990 to promote their spices and essences through exchange of technology and product introduction. Domestic fragrance enterprises have selected and introduced some flavor varieties with good quality that can play a significant role in flavor blending, but China has not yet been able to produce, thus promoting the expansion and quality improvement of flavor varieties in China. These spices also prompted fragrance enterprises to copy, improve and innovate, forming a thriving development of synthetic fragrance in China, and driving the continuous development of Chinese flavor.

Under the strong support of the people's government, sent by technical personnel, management personnel and business leaders to spice company abroad, training, from 1984 to 1998 by the ministry of light industry group sent study surveys have seven group of more than 30 people, respectively, to the United States, Switzerland, Japan, Germany, Britain, France, the Netherlands and Hong Kong and other countries and regions, sent four group of 10 people go to Japan again salt field corporation, Swiss givaudan co., the international federation of spices, French perfume cosmetics company such as technical training. To learn advanced experience in international incense blending technology and management. Increased perceptual understanding, which also plays an active role in promoting the development of China's fragrance industry.

2. Introduction of flavor technology

At the end of 1980s, some regional flavor factories from the United Kingdom, France to introduce some daily chemical flavor formula; More is in Shanghai, guangzhou, tianjin, hangzhou and other places from foreign perfumers technical exchange to learn some flavor and food flavor preparation technology. In the foreign training, I learned and mastered the experience of blending different flavor types of daily chemical flavor, emulsification process of food flavor, reaction process of melade, etc., so as to improve the structure of some original flavor formula in China, increase the variety and improve the original quality level. At the same time, since 1987, high pressure homogenizer and high speed shear homogenizer have been introduced from abroad for emulsifying flavor production. Former kunming perfumery plant essence ingredients equipments imported from France, peacock flavors company in Shanghai, guangzhou, hangzhou perfumery plant flowers spices company from 1991 to 1998 successively introduced color mass spectrometry, chromatography, guangzhou baihua spice company and the introduction of trace tester, atomic absorption spectrometer, the proportion of turbidity meter testing instruments, such as testing provide accurate and reliable data on the quality of products, and imitating the foreign flavor and essence lay the foundation of the qualitative and quantitative data.

On the basis of development, Chinese flavor continuously learns the international popular new technology, and develops new flavor varieties according to China's national conditions. Before the 1980s, there were only several kinds of daily chemical fragrance in China, such as flower fragrance, sandalwood fragrance and fuqi fragrance. Up to now has been able to produce: green fragrance type, grass fragrance type, aldehyde fragrance type, Oriental fragrance type, compound flower fragrance type, sea breeze type, forest type and so on. In addition to liquid, microcapsules can also be used to produce daily chemical essence. In the application has been expanded to shampoo, bath liquid, detergent, mousse, sunblock class, insect repellent class, incense class, plastic products, toy products, fabrics and so on.

Food flavor from the 80 s only 20 ~ 30 mainly fruit scent liquid essence, has been to production: milk scent (milk, pure milk, milk, etc.), poultry (chicken, cattle, pigs, etc.), nuts, sesame seeds, peanuts, hazelnuts, coffee, etc.), vegetables, tomatoes, green peppers, taro, potato, cucumber, carrots, sweet potatoes, etc.), tea (black tea, green tea, oolong tea, etc.), candied fruit type (plum, and should, Han lam, etc.), liquor flavor types (such as rice wine, maotai-flavor), flavor type (soy sauce, oyster sauce, celery, etc.); Dosage form has been expanded to: emulsion, pulp, powder, microcapsule.

Tobacco flavor has been developed from flue-cured tobacco surface fragrance essence to production: flue-cured tobacco flavor, mixed surface fragrance essence, mixed flavor flavor, different flavor tobacco flavor (mint, cocoa, etc.).

With the continuous development of China's economy, the application of flavor is also expanding the scope of use. Daily chemical flavor has been gradually expanded to the environment, decoration, daily industrial products, toys and other fields, such as: air freshener, interior decoration materials, other industries (arts and crafts, plastic flowers, ink, ink, paper, paint, floor wax, etc.) use.

Food flavor is also gradually expanding the scope of application, such as: dishes and condiments, small food, medicine, animal feed, etc., in the plant protein products also began to use. The application range of flavor is more and more wide, and further promote the production of flavor.

3. Research on fragrance

Since the 1990s, perfuming application laboratories have been set up by various perfuming enterprises to explore the actual effect of perfuming products from the application of fragrance, observe the changes in the head fragrance, retention time, color change, stability, taste, etc., in order to improve the reliability of flavor quality, and provide the perfuming test results to the fragrance factory as a reference.

Essence is the combination of the art technology and science, both as a flavourists have natural flavor varieties and production knowledge, and understanding the process route, synthetic spices should be familiar with all natural and synthetic spices aroma, fragrance and their general physical and chemical indicators, solubility and they like nuances of belonging and mutual compatibility, coordination, and modify the art of processing. At the same time to have some inspiration, work to be patient and creative, in the practice of accumulating experience. At the same time, fully absorb the wisdom of predecessors and contemporary, continue to develop. At present, only Shanghai academy of light industry (now Shanghai institute of applied technology) has the specialty of incense blending, which trains incense blending personnel for enterprises. So at present, most of the incense workers come from other professions, and they are growing up on the job. The fragrance enterprises communicate with each other, or plan the training, or invite the foreign fragrance experts to China for guidance. However, the key is to cultivate and adjust their own assiduous study, so that there will be a number of a higher level of perfumers trained.

After more than 40 years of reform and opening up, Chinese fragrance production has made great progress in terms of quality, variety and yield, but there are still many gaps compared with international multinational fragrance companies, such as low skill level of perfumers, low quality of spices, poor authenticity of aroma, short persistence of fragrance retention, and incomplete varieties.

The improvement of flavor quality, the key is to solve three problems, one is the improvement of fragrance technology, two is the fragrance varieties used to be complete, three is the quality of spices to be high that aroma to be pure, these three are indispensable. To improve the skills of perfumers, we should have a unified plan, emphasize the basic skills, and step by step. Essence wants to do well, cannot leave spice, breed wants qi, quality wants tall, although introduce from abroad at present more convenient, but the price often is very high. For example, the price of heterocyclic compounds is generally higher than the domestic production of the same varieties or even several times, so the development of domestic has not yet produced spices is really imminent work, should encourage the domestic units to actively develop and produce, to the developed spices required to reach the international quality level, in order to ensure the quality of flavor.

Domestic perfume factories should be actively equipped with relevant instruments, such as ultraviolet spectroscopy, high-pressure liquid phase, headspace analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetism, etc., in order to improve scientific research and detection methods. To imitate the introduction of flavor and flavor base, should actively analyze simulation, this is to improve the fragrance technology and flavor quality of a shortcut.

The research of domestic unique varieties should be taken as the focus of the development of Chinese flavor, creating new flavor types, opening up new USES, and improving the application effect of flavor in flavoring medium, including stability, durability and adaptability. Make essence in add fragrance product to achieve fragrance truly pure, taste is delicious, do not hinder health, satisfy the demand of unit of application and consumer.
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